Singapore has signed agreements with Colombia, Burkina Faso, Côte d`Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria and Rwanda (green areas on the map above), but these agreements are not yet in force. You can contact MTI (firstname.lastname@example.org) for any requests regarding these agreements. Historically, the emergence of the international investment framework can be divided into two distinct eras. The first era – from 1945 to 1989 – was marked by differences of opinion between countries on the level of protection that international law should offer foreign investors. While most developed countries have argued that foreign investors should be entitled to minimum treatment in each hospitality sector, developing and socialist countries have tended to argue that foreign investors should not be treated differently from domestic firms. In 1959, the first bits were completed and, over the next ten years, much of the content that forms the basis of the majority of current ILOs was developed and refined. In 1965, the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States was opened for country signing. The reason was to make ICSID an institution that facilitates the resolution of investor-state disputes. Countries enter into enterprise agreements primarily to protect and indirectly encourage foreign investment and, increasingly, to liberalize these investments. The IIAs provide companies and individuals of contracting parties with enhanced security and security under international law when they invest or set up a business in other countries parties to the agreement.
Reducing the investment risk associated with an IGE is designed to encourage businesses and individuals to invest in the country that AI has concluded. In this context, it is important to allow foreign investors to settle disputes with the host country through international arbitrations and not just through the host country`s national courts. There are 196 ILOs within the EU. In June 2015, the European Commission sent a written request to Member States to end all remaining bits within the EU. In early 2019, EU member states decided to remove all of them. At the same time, the European Commission is working to improve the legal protection of intra-European investments. A new dispute resolution mechanism within the EU is needed to ensure adequate protection. Such a mechanism must be efficient, inexpensive, sme-friendly and binding. Germany is a winner of globalization.
German companies are highly integrated into world markets, not only through exports and imports, but also through foreign direct investment. FDI from German companies has almost increased six-fold since 1990 to around 1.2 trillion euros (2017). With a stock of 506.4 billion euros (2017), almost half of Germany`s direct investment is invested in other EU Member States. The turnover of German companies abroad thanks to these investments (1.2 billion euros) far exceeds exports to these countries (0.8 billion euros) (2017). These investments are protected by 14 German bits (INTRA-EU BIT), for example. B with Bulgaria, Poland and the Czech Republic. Although this is just over 10% of the 129 German ILOs in force, more than half of the ISDS arbitration procedures launched by German companies are directed against EU-28 countries. An International Investment Agreement (IIIA) is a kind of country-to-country treaty that addresses issues relevant to cross-border investment, usually to protect, promote and liberalize such investments. Most FDI covers foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investments, some of which do not exclude them. Countries that enter into agreements commit to specific standards for the treatment of foreign investment in their territory.